SDB:Instalace bez CD

Přejít na: navigace, hledání
Varování Tato stránka může obsahovat neaktuální informace k danému tématu. Můžete si přečíst anglickou verzi.

Problém


Někdy není možné vypálit CD nebo DVD disky, například není k dispozici vypalovačka či prázdná média. Přesto však chcete nainstalovat SUSE. Pro získání dat budete potřebovat internetové připojení. Není podstatné, zda budete data stahovat před instalací nebo během instalace pomocí FTP či HTTP.

Postup


Získání dat


Data lze získat dvěma způsoby - před instalací nebo během instalace.

Před instalací


Pokud instalační data stahujete před instalací, budete muset provést některé kroky, aby data měl k dispozici instalační kernel. Opět máte dvě možnosti: Data můžete uložit na vlastním počítači nebo na počítači dostupném prostřednictvím sítě. Pokud data chcete uložit na vlastním počítači, ověřte, zda máte samostatný oddíl dostatečně velký na to, aby pojmul všechna tato data, který nebude při instalaci zformátován.

Můžete použít program makeSUSEdvd s parametrem

 makeSUSEdvd -i -t /cesta/ke/zdroji

Můžete vytvořit zrcadlo serveru, nebo můžete stáhnout přímo ISO soubory. Další informace naleznete na stránce zrcadel vývojové verze a na stránce zrcadel stabilních verzí.

Abyste mohli instalovat z instalačního zdroje, stačí, abyste data zpřístupníli místnímu počítači.

Během instalace


Pokud instalujete z Internetu, postupujte jako při instalaci ze serveru FTP. Budete potřebovat síťové připojení, abyste se mohli připojit k instalačnímu zdroji, například k zrcadlu nebo k počítači v místní síti.

Tato stránka není zatím kompletně přeložena, k dispozici je anglická verze.

Installing the data


You need to boot into the installation kernel. Different methods are used according to the location of the data. The methods may also vary slightly depending on what OS you plan to set up your install from.

Installing from data stored on another machine (Internet/Network install)


You can either mount the minimal boot.iso and extract a boot/installation kernel for use with the GRUB or LILO bootloaders, or you can extract some floppy disk images to set up and boot from floppy disk.

Internet/Network install using GRUB/LILO


First download the boot.iso from any mirror. The following needs to be done as root. Move or copy the boot.iso to the directory boot. Next in directory /boot do the following:

# mount -t iso9660 -o loop boot.iso /mnt
# cp /mnt/boot/loader/initrd /boot/suseinitrd
# cp /mnt/boot/loader/linux /boot/suselinux
# umount /mnt

In SUSE Linux 10.1, the paths have changed. You can find linux and initrd in /mnt/boot/<arch>/loader/ now (please replace <arch> with i386, x86_64 or ppc depending on your hardware).

You can now setup GRUB/LILO to boot into the installation kernel using the instructions further down this guide.

Internet/Network install using boot floppies


To boot and install from floppy disks you need to download the first installation CD iso (SUSE-10.0-CD-OSS-i386-GM-CD1.iso). Now the following needs to be done as root from the directory where you saved the CD1 installation iso. Do the following as root from the folder where the iso exists:

# su
# mount -t iso9660 -o loop SUSE-10.0-CD-OSS-i386-GM-CD1.iso /mnt
# /mnt/boot/mkbootdisk /mnt

It seems that the layout for the 10.1 CDs has changed and mkbootdisk doesn't work well anymore (see this bug). For 10.1 you can do something like this:

# su
# mount -t iso9660 -o loop SUSE-Linux-10.1-GM-i386-CD1.iso /mnt
# /path/to/mkbootdisk /mnt/boot/i386/loader/

Be sure to first download mkbootdisk as it doesn't seem to be on the CD anymore. You can get it here. For openSUSE 10.2 can be downloaded from here (new releases may use other URI, watch for any change in ftp structure). Tip: Installation boot disks can be created using Yast (System / Boot or Rescue Floppy) so in the event you have access to another openSUSE installed system this can be a good option.

Do the next command for each floppy disk, bootdisk1-7

# dd if=bootdisk1 of=/dev/fd0

Soubor:Create boot floppy 1 to 7.jpg

Now use the floppys you created to boot the installation kernel and start your online install.

Remote Network Installation


This is about remote installation, where one has no direct access to machine where SUSE will be installed, using some properties of GRUB that are not widely known:

Internet/Network install using USB Stick


Creating a bootable USB Stick version of mini.iso entirely from Windows

Assuming the version of Suse is 10.1 x86_64 or i386 and the usb stick is E: in Windows:

  • Extract mini.iso to E: with WinRar
  • Move E:\boot\x86_64\loader\* or E:\boot\i386\loader\* to E:\
  • Delete E:\isolinux.bin
  • Rename E:\isolinux.cfg to E:\syslinux.cfg
  • Extract syslinux-<version>.zip to c:\syslinux
  • CD to c:\syslinux\syslinux<version>\win32 directory in a cmd prompt
  • Run syslinux E:
Creating a bootable USB Stick from Linux

This assumes that the usb stick is /dev/sda with an active partition /dev/sda1 and 12 megs of available space.

i386

umount /dev/sda1
mount -o loop SUSE-Linux-10.1-Remastered-i386-mini.iso /mnt
/mnt/boot/i386/mkbootdisk --32 --partition /dev/sda1 /mnt

x86_64

umount /dev/sda1
mount -o loop SUSE-Linux-10.1-Remastered-x86_64-mini.iso /mnt
/mnt/boot/x86_64/mkbootdisk --64 --partition /dev/sda1 /mnt


Boot the stick and follow other directions in 'Running the Setup' to load a network card driver and specify network settings to reach a network-hosted copy of the install media.


At the end of the install, the grub boot loader mbr may be written to the stick instead of the hard disk. Just leave the stick in and reboot the machine. It will boot into the new installed OS instead of the miniboot install menu. Go into yast, system, boot loader, boot loader installation. Select the appropriate device for your installation, Finish. Now the machine will boot itself without the stick installed.

Installing from data saved on your local machine


If you have put a mirror or the ISO files on a local hard drive, or if you have used makeSUSEdvd to make the Install source for you, please remember in what drive and on what partition it is placed. Write it down.

SUSE needs access to two files in order to boot into the installation system. These files are initrd and linux.

  • If you have downloaded the source (mirrored), do the following:
# cp /path/to/source/boot/loader/initrd /boot/inst-initrd
# cp /path/to/source/boot/loader/linux /boot/inst-linux
  • If you have downloaded the ISO files to your hard drive you will need to download initrd and linux from an Installation Repository mirror serparately. To do this go to the Mirrors Released Version page, find a mirror in your country, and click on the "Installation Repository" link for the mirror. Navigate to the /boot folder, then the folder for your architecture, then the folder /loader. Inside this folder, find and download initrd and linux. Save these to your /boot directory on your local machine and rename them inst-initrd and inst-linux respectively.
  • If you are experienced, you do not need to do this and set mount points to /path/to/source/boot/loader/linux where it uses /boot/inst-linux instead. The same goes for the initrd. You need to know on what partition and directory you have placed it.

Changing the bootloader sequence


The boot sequence will need some things. It needs to know on what harddrive it must look. It needs to know where the kernel is and and where the initrc is. I will asume that / (root directory) is /dev/hda2 and the /path/to/source is /dev/hda3 If after rebooting you need some time to choose what to boot, change the timeout in Grub or Lilo.

If you have used makeSUSEdvd with the -i option, you will be presented what to enter into /boot/grub/menu.lst or /etc/lilo.conf. No need to move linux and initrd.

Grub


Add the following to /boot/grub/menu.lst

title Install SUSE
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/inst-linux
initrd /boot/inst-initrd

The naming of drives is a bit different in Grub. The first partition is 0 and the next 1 and so on. The first drive is 0, the second is 1 and so on, not regarding the CD or DVD drives. So if your CD player is /dev/hdb and you have Linux with boot on /dev/hdc3 that will become

root (hd1,2)

Second hard drive (0, 1, ...) and third partition (0, 1, 2, ...) See info grub or do the installation with YaST.

Lilo


Please somebody confirm the information below. Add the following lines to /etc/lilo.conf

image=/boot/suselinux
initrd=/boot/suseinitrd
label=Install_SUSE
root=/dev/hda1 > (You need to set your drive according to your setup)

Do not forget to run lilo before you reboot. This has been tested on two x86 computers with both Grub and Lilo and this works fine.

Others


Look at comparisons on how to configure a boot into Linux and specify the correct kernel inst-linux and inst-initrd on the correct drive.

Using this method of installation with SUSE Linux 10.1 Beta 6 might fail (Bug 155351).

Running the setup


Remove any CDs or DVDs from their drives. You will just need to reboot and then choose Install SUSE Several choices need to be made. It mainly is clicking OK several times until you must select a way to install

  • The first message will be Make sure that CD number 1 is in your computer. Press OK.
  • You then get notified that it could not find the CD and it will start the Manual Setup. Press OK.
  • You need to select the Language. Press OK.
  • Choose the keyboard map. Press OK.
  • You get the main menu. Select Start installation or System which is the default and press OK.
  • You get Start installation or Update and must choose either network (via FTP) or Hard Disc (local drive)
    • Via Network. Choose the server and directory containing the install files.
    • Hard Disk. You will be asked to choose the partition. Next choose the directory.
      • For ISO files you will need to type the directory and complete filename of the first ISO file.
      • Example -- Partition: /sda1 (USB hard drive) Directory: /SUSECDs/SUSE-Linux-10.1-GM-i386-CD1.iso


Varování Now the normal Yast installation will start. If the source is on your local drive, see that you do not format that partition.